Palaeoctopus was a primitive octopod that lived in the Late Cretaceous, approximately 89 to 71 million years ago. Fossil material assigned to this species originates from the Mount Hajoula region in Lebanon. The holotype was found below the Old Covent, Sahel-el-Alma, Mount Lebanon and is deposited at the Natural History Museum in London. It might belong to the Cirrina or be more basal in the Octopoda. Specimens from the Turonian of Mexico transpired to in fact be part of a coelacanth.

A separate species, P. pelagicus, is known from the Early Turonian of Vallecino.

In The Land Before Time

An imaginary, stylized Palaeoctopus briefly appears in The Land Before Time V: The Mysterious Island during the song Big Water. It is seen wrapping its tentacles around Littlefoot and trying to squeeze him.